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Wednesday, October 31, 2012

The History of Aircraft in Ethiopia



The aeroplane was slow to make an appearance in Ethiopia, reportedly because Empress Zawditu and the Minister of War, Fitawrari Habte Giyorgis, were both conservative and opposed to the winged innovation.
The Ethiopian Government, reacting to Italian Fascist plans of conquest, decided, however, in 1929 to purchase a limited amount of aircraft. An order for two planes was despatched that year to a German firm, but delivery was delayed, it is said, by the French authorities in Jibuti, so that French aircraft could arrive in Ethiopia first.

The arrival in Addis Ababa of the very first aeroplane, a French twin-engined Potez piloted from Jibuti by the French aviator, André Maillet, was recalled many years later by an old Austrian friend, Alfred Abel. In a communication to the Journal of Ethiopian Studies, for July 1972 he wrote:
“It was on Sunday, 18 August 1929  that the first aeroplane landed in the capital of Ethiopia... At almost the same time as the French plane was being unloaded [at Jibuti] from the SS Porthos a steamer of the Norddeutscher Lloyd carried into the port a Junckers ordered from Germany...
“Naturally each crew was competing for the glory of being the first to fly into Ethiopia and tremendous efforts were made on both sides to achieve this. In the end it was the French who won the day. This was not surprising as the Port and other authorities did their utmost to assist their own nationals, and as the Germans alleged – with some truth probably, all sorts of difficulties were put in their way...”
And Abel continues:
“There was, of course, tremendous excitement in town when the day and approximate hour of arrival [of the aeroplane] became known a few days before the flight. From early in the morning on that historic Sunday, an endless procession made its way to the improvised air-strip, on foot, horse and mule, and also in cars, although there were very few in circulation in those days. Fortunately the weather was fair and the sky cloudless despite the rainy season – and the pilot must have felt immensely relieved during the last stage of the flight with visibility perfect...
“A large tent had been prepared for the Prince Regent [i.e. Negus Tafari Mekonnen], the Diplomatic Corps and other distinguished guests. The Prince remained in front of the tent scanning the sky with his binoculars, while making conversation with the French Minister, Monsieur de Reffye, who had appeared with the entire Legation staff and looked very important, though slightly nervous...”
“There were a few moments of anxious suspense when a telegraph message was brought to the Regent shortly after 10 o’clock advising that the aeroplane had been obliged to make a forced landing, having run out of petrol. However the engine was rapidly refilled...
“It was exactly 35 minutes after 10 o’clock when the plane first became visible against the south-eastern sky linsky-line, looking not much larger than a bird, but increasing in size as it quickly approached the air-strip.
“An indescribable enthusiasm seized the crowd when they sighted the plane and realised that it was not just a bird, but the real thing. Amid the jubilant shouting and frantic hand-clapping the Police and Guards were hard pressed to prevent the seething crowd from rushing on to the roped-off area [reserved for the plane]. An enormous flag was waved all the time to show the exact spot to land.
‘The plane came down, landing in perfect style, and taxied towards the tent; the engine stopped, the door was flung open and out jumped the crew (the pilot and his mechanic) looking rather tired, but proud and smiling happily.
‘’Again the guards had great difficulty in clearing the way for them to reach the tent, where they were graciously welcomed by the Prince Regent and congratulated on what in those days was, quite rightly, considered a remarkable performance. Champagne was served...
”Thus ended, most successfully, the first day in the history of flying in Ethiopia.”

Ethiopian aviation in those far off days was at first largely foreign-run. The Air Force was thus successively commanded by the afore-mentioned André Maillet and his compatriot Paul Corriger, while most of the mechanics and instructors were likewise French. The staff nevertheless also included several Germans, as well as an Armenian and a Romanian. Training was carried out at Dire Dawa and Jigjiga, as well as in Addis Ababa.
Ethiopianization in the years immediately prior to the Fascist invasion nevertheless made good progress. The chief pilot at this time was Micha Babicheff, who was half-Ethiopian and half-Russian. He was assisted by three Ethiopian pilots: Baru Kaba, who had studied in France, Tesfaye Michael, in Egypt and France, and Asfaw Ali in Dire Dawa.
An Addis Ababa airport was duly established on the Addis Ababa – Addis Alem road, a few kilometres from the capital, but was soon moved to a more convenient site at Jan Hoy Meda, an open field just north of the Menilek Palace, or east of the later Palace of Haile Selassie (now Addis Ababa University’s main campus).

The Ethiopian Government meanwhile attempted to purchase more planes, with the result that the country by the time of the invasion possessed thirteen aircraft – of which however, only eight were reportedly air-worthy.
The result of this shortage of planes was that when it came to fighting the invaders had complete control of the air, which they used for heavy bombing, as well as for the dropping of poison gas.

The most interesting of Ethiopia’s pre-war aircraft was a small 7-.37 metre long re-designed Junkers monoplane assembled in the country. Called Tsehai after Emperor Haile Selassie’s daughter of that name, as well as “Ethiopia I”, it was one of the first, if not actually the first aeroplane, to be produced in Africa. It was designed by a German pilot, Herr Ludwig Weber, who supervised its construction and flew it for an estimated thirty hours towards the end of 1935 and the first months of 1936. He left AddisAbaba, however, on 3 May of that year immediately prior to the Italian occupation of the Ethiopian capital.
This remarkable plane was specially designed for high altitude flight. It was reportedly able to climb a thousand metres from 2,500 to 3,500 metres above sea level in only seven minutes, and could come to a halt in 100 metres without any use of brakes.
This flying machine, which came to be known at “the plane of the Negus”, or King, and was reportedly registered in the name of the latter’s family, was taken to Italy as a “Booty of War”. Originally painted in silver-grey it  became the property of the Italian Museo dell’Accademia Aeronautica, at Caserta, in southern Italy, where it was for some obscure reason  re-painted in  red, with vertical stripes in the Ethiopian national colours, green, yellow and red. The plane was then transferred to the main Museo Storico, where Ethiopian visitors were allegedly discouraged from asking questions about their country’s old aeroplane.
When Addis Ababa’s new airport was planned the architect proposed that the old “aeroplane of the Negus” should be hung in the main reception hall, to symbolise the country’s age-old desire for modernisation. Though an historic machine which should have been returned  - like the Aksum Obelisk – in accordance with Article 37 of the Italian Peace Treaty with the United Nations, concluded in 1947, repatriation has thus far been denied. Ethiopia remains deprived of this part of her historic heritage.

For the subsequent history of Ethiopian aviation, the successful story of Ethiopian Airlines, readers are referred to the important monograph of Professor Bahru Zewde, Bringing Africa Together, published by Ethiopian Airlines in 1988.
By : Historian Richard Pankhurst

Tuesday, October 30, 2012

Teddy Afro to blast Hawassa

Hawassa is the next stop for Teddy Afro as part of his "wede fikir" world tour concert. Mark your calendars as it will be a three day extravaganza with a pre party taking place at Haile resorts for fans coming from Addis and cities near Hawassa on Friday. The music legend that knows how to wow a crowd will be performing with Abugida band at Hawassa stadium on Tikimit 24. Tickets for this big show willl be on sale starting from Monday with 120 birr for normal tickets and 250 for VIP. 

tizitaw samuel, orthodox tewahedo


video
Deacon Tizitaw Samuel is a zemari  and  preacher of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo faith. He spreads the words of God throughout his teachings and mezmurs

በእስራኤል የተደበደበው የሱዳን ሚስጢራዊ የጦር መሣሪያ ፋብሪካ ለኢትዮጵያ ሥጋት መሆኑ ተጠቆመ

ባለፈው ማክሰኞ ሌሊት ከሱዳን ዋና ከተማ ካርቱም በስተደቡብ የሚገኘው ሚስጥራዊ የጦር መሣርያ ፋብሪካ በእስራኤል የሚሳይል ጥቃት እንደተፈጸመበት ከታወቀ በኋላ፣ ለኢትዮጵያ ከፍተኛ ሥጋት መሆኑን ዜጎችና የፖለቲካ ተንታኞች እያስረዱ ነው፡፡
እስራኤል በዚህ እጅግ ሚስጥራዊ ነው በተባለለት ወታደራዊ የጦር መሣርያ ፋብሪካ ላይ ጥቃቱን የፈጸመችው በቅርቡ በሒዝቦላህ የተላከባት ሰው አልባ የጦር አውሮፕላን (Drone) ግዛቷ ውስጥ መትታ ከጣለች በኋላ መሆኑ ታውቋል፡፡ የእስራኤል ወታደራዊ ባለሥልጣናት ሰው አልባው የጦር አውሮፕላን የተመረተው በካርቱም የጦር መሣርያ ፋብሪካ ውስጥ መሆኑን፣ በግብፅ በኩል ተጓጉዞ ለኢራን ከደረሰ በኋላ ሊባኖስ ውስጥ ለመሸገው ሒዝቦላህ መሰጠቱን መግለጻቸው በዓለም አቀፍ መገናኛ ብዙኅን ተገልጿል፡፡

ምንም እንኳን እስራኤል የጦር መሣርያ ፋብሪካውን በሚሳይል ማጥቃቷን በቀጥታ ባታስተባብልም፣ የሱዳን መንግሥት ከጠላቶቿ ጋር እያሴረባት መሆኑን ወታደራዊ ባለሥልጣናቷ እየገለጹ መሆናቸው ተሰምቷል፡፡ የሱዳን መንግሥት ጥቃቱን የፈጸመችው እስራኤል መሆኑን አስታውቆ፣ ጉዳዩን ወደተባበሩት መንግሥታት ድርጅት የፀጥታው ምክር ቤት እወስዳለሁ ብሏል፡፡ በተጨማሪም ለጥቃቱ አፀፋ ምላሽ እንደሚሰጥ ዝቷል፡፡ የሱዳን መንግሥት የካርቱም የጦር መሣሪያ ፋብሪካው መደብደቡን ማረጋገጡ ለኢትዮጵያና ለአካባቢው አገሮች ጭምር ሥጋት መሆኑን የሚገልጹት ተንታኞች፣ በተለይ ኢትዮጵያ ጉዳዩን ትኩረት ሰጥታ ልትከታተለው ይገባል ይላሉ፡፡

ለዚህ አባባላቸው ዋቢ የሚያደርጉት ከካርቱም በስተደቡብ ከዋናው አውራ ጎዳና ሁለት ኪሎ ሜትር ገባ ብሎ በአደገኛ የሽቦ መከላከያ የታጠረው ሚስጥራዊ የጦር መሣርያ ፋብሪካ፣ በኢራን ድጋፍ ሰው አልባ የጦር አውሮፕላኖችንና ረጅም ርቀት ተወንጫፊ ሚሳይሎች ስለሚመረቱበት ነው፡፡ በአፍሪካና በመካከለኛው ምሥራቅ ወታደራዊ ጉዳዮች ላይ ምርምር የሚያካሂዱ አንድ ስማቸው ያልተገለጸ ተመራማሪ፣ በሱዳን ውስጥ የተገነባው ሚስጥራዊ የጦር መሣርያ ፋብሪካ ኢትዮጵያ በመገንባት ላይ ላለችው የህዳሴ ግድብ ጠንቅ ሊሆን ይችላል ብለዋል፡፡

በቅርቡ ዊክሊክስ በዓባይ ወንዝ ላይ ኢትዮጵያ የምትገነባቸውን ግድቦች ግብፅ በሚሳይል ወይም በልዩ ኮማንዶዎች ለማውደም ዕቅድ እንደነበራት መጋለጡን የሚያስታውሱ ስማቸው እንዳይገለጽ የፈለጉ ኢትዮጵያዊ የመስኩ ባለሙያ የሱዳን፣ የግብፅና የኢራን ጥምር ፕሮጀክት የሆነው የጦር መሣርያ ፋብሪካ በእስራኤል መመታቱ ለኢትዮጵያ የማንቂያ ደወል ነው ይላሉ፡፡ ስለዚህ ሚስጥራዊ የጦር መሣርያ ፋብሪካ ምናልባት የኢትዮጵያ መንግሥት መረጃ ሊኖረው ይችላል የሚሉት ባለሙያው፣ በእስራኤል ጥቃት እንደደረሰበት ይፋ መውጣቱ ግን ሥጋቱ ምን ያህል ግዙፍ እንደሆነ ያሳያል ብለዋል፡፡

ከዚህ ሚስጥራዊ የጦር መሣርያ ፋብሪካ በስተጀርባ ግብፅ እንዳለችበት ሳይታለም የተፈታ ነው የሚሉት በአዲስ አበባ ዩኒቨርሲቲ የፖለቲካ ሳይንስ መምህር የሆኑት ሌላው አስተያየት ሰጪ፣ ኢትዮጵያ ስድስት ሺሕ ሜጋ ዋት የኤሌክትሪክ ኃይል ለማመንጨት የምትገነባው ታላቁ የህዳሴ ግድብ ምን ያህል አደጋ እንደተጋረጠበት ማሰብ ያስፈልጋል ይላሉ፡፡ የሱዳንና የግብፅ ሚስጥራዊ ግንኙነቶችና ትብብሮች እንዲህ ሲጋለጡ ማየት ለኢትዮጵያ መልካም አጋጣሚ መሆኑንም ይጠቁማሉ፡፡

አንድ የእስራኤል ወታደራዊ ባለሥልጣን ‹‹የሱዳን መንግሥት በዓለም ላይ አደገኛው አሸባሪ ነው›› በማለት በእስራኤል ሬዲዮ ሰሞኑን የተናገሩትን ያስታወሱት እኚሁ መምህር፣ የሱዳን መንግሥት በፕሬዚዳንት ኦማር ሐሰን አል በሽር አመራር ከኢትዮጵያና ከአካባቢው አገሮች በስተጀርባ ምን እየሠራ እንደሆነ የኢትዮጵያ መንግሥት በንቃት መከታተል አለበት ብለዋል፡፡ ኢትዮጵያ በግንባር ቀደምትነት በሱዳንና በደቡብ ሱዳን መካከል የተፈጠረውን ችግር በመፍታት ሰላም ለማውረድ ስትሯሯጥ፣ ለህልውናዋ አደገኛ የሆነ ተግባር ሱዳን ውስጥ ሊቀነባበር ስለሚችል ብርቱ ጥንቃቄ ያስፈልጋል ብለዋል፡፡

እስራኤል ከ18 ወራት በፊት ሱዳን ውስጥ ተመሳሳይ ድብደባ መፈጸሟን የሚያስታውሱ ተቀማጭነታቸው አዲስ አበባ ውስጥ የሆነ አንድ የምዕራብ አገር ዲፕሎማት፣ የአል በሽር መንግሥት ከኢራን ጋር በመተባበር ሒዝቦላን ሰው አልባ አውሮፕላኖችን፣ ሮኬቶችንና ተወንጫፊ ሚሳይሎችን እንደሚያስታጥቅ ግልጽ እየሆነ መጥቷል ይላሉ፡፡ ዲፕሎማቱ የሱዳን የጦር መሣርያ ፋብሪካ በተለይ  በኢትዮጵያ ላይ ሊፈጥር የሚችለውን ሥጋት በአሁኑ ወቅት ለመግለጽ አስቸጋሪ ቢሆንም፣ ኢትዮጵያ ግን ብርቱ ጥንቃቄ ማድረግ ይኖርባታል ይላሉ፡፡

አል በሽር ዳርፉር ውስጥ በተፈጸመ የጦር ወንጀል ምክንያት በዓለም አቀፉ የወንጀለኞች ፍርድ ቤት የእስር ዋራንት ተቆርጦባቸው ሲፈለጉ፣ ኢትዮጵያና የተወሰኑ የአፍሪካ አገሮች ትብብር አለማድረጋቸው ትክክል አለመሆኑን የገለጹት ዲፕሎማቱ፣ የአል በሽር ሕገወጥ ተግባሮች ግን ለኢትዮጵያም ሆነ ለአካባቢው አገሮች አይበጁም ብለዋል፡፡ ዲፕሎማቱ ግብፅ በጦር መሣርያው ፋብሪካው ስላላት ተሳትፎ ተጠይቀው በሰጡት ምላሽ ለጊዜው ተጨባጭ መረጃ እንደሌላቸው ገልጸው፣ እስራኤል እንዳለችው ሰው አልባዎቹ አውሮፕላኖች በግብፅ በኩል ለሒዝቦላ ደርሰው ከሆነ መጠርጠር አይከፋም ብለዋል፡፡ አሁን በሥልጣን ላይ ያለው የሙስሊም ወንድማማቾች ቡድን አመራር ከእንዲሀ ዓይነቱ ድርጊት ሊታቀብ እንደማይችልም ጠቆም አድርገዋል፡፡

የግብፅ ፕሬዚዳንት መሐመድ ሙርሲ በሱዳን ላይ ጥቃት አድርሳለች የተባለችውን እስራኤልን ባለፈው ዓርብ ማውገዛቸውን ተከትሎ፣ በርካታ አስተያየት ሰጪዎች ፕሬዚዳንቱ እስራኤልን ያወገዙት ለሱዳን ጉርብትና ሲሉ ሳይሆን ግብፅ የጦር መሣርያ ፋብሪካው ባለድርሻ በመሆኗ ነው እያሉ ነው፡፡ ሙርሲ እስራኤል በሱዳን ላይ ወረራ ፈጽማለች ብለው፣ አገራቸው ግብፅ ለሱዳን ድጋፍ ትሰጣለች ማለታቸው ግብፅ የጦር መሣርያ ፋብሪካው ጥቃት እንዳበሳጫት አመላካች መሆኑን ይጠቁማሉ፡፡ ግብፅ እጇ ባይኖርበት ኖሮ ይኼን ያህል ለምን ትንጨረጨራለች በማለት የሚጠይቁት አስተያየት ሰጪዎች፣ የእስራኤል ድርጊት መወገዝ ከነበረበት በአፍሪካ ኅብረት ነበር ይላሉ፡፡

የብዙዎች ጥያቄ የካርቱም የጦር መሣርያ ፋብሪካ ለእስራኤል ሥጋት ሆኖ ዕርምጃ ከወሰደችበት፣ ለኢትዮጵያስ ሥጋት አይሆንም ወይ የሚለው ነው፡፡ ኢትዮጵያ በዓባይ ላይ የተለያዩ የኃይል ማመንጫ ግድቦችን ለመገንባት እንቅስቃሴዎችን ስታደርግ፣ ለህልውናችን አስጊ ሊሆን ይችላል በማለት የሚያስቡት ግብፅና ሱዳን ነገ ከነገ ወዲያ ምን ዓይነት የተቀናጀ ጥቃት ሊሰነዝሩ እንደሚችሉ ማሰብ የግድ መሆኑን በአጽንኦት ይናገራሉ፡፡

የዓባይ ተፋሰስ አገሮች ፍትሐዊ የውኃ ክፍፍል እንዲኖር አዲሱን የትብብር ማዕቀፍ ሲፈርሙ ግብፅና ሱዳን እስካሁን ማፈንገጣቸውን የሚያስታውሱት የተፋሰስና የተሻጋሪ ወንዞች ባለሙያዎች፣ በቅርቡ በዊኪሊክስ የወጣውን መረጃ ፈጽሞ ማጣጣል አያስፈልግም ሲሉ ይመክራሉ፡፡ እስራኤልና ኢራንን ከበስተጀርባ የሚያናቁረው የካርቱም ጦር መሣርያ ጥቃት አሁን ግብፅን ጭምር ያካተተ በመሆኑ፣ ከማንም በላይ የወደፊት ጥቃት ግንባር ቀደም ገፈት ቀማሽ የምትሆነው ኢትዮጵያ የተፋሰሱን አገሮች በማስተባበር ዓለም አቀፍ የሰላም ዘመቻ ማካሄድ አለባት ይላሉ፡፡ ለወታደራዊ ጥቃት ከሚደረገው ዝግጅት በተጓዳኝ የዓባይን ወንዝ በሰላምና በፍትሐዊ መንገድ መጠቀምን አስፈላጊነት በዓለም አቀፍ ደረጃ በማስደመጥ ግብፅና ሱዳንን ወደ ድርድር ማምጣት አስፈላጊ መሆኑን ያሰምሩበታል፡፡ የኢትዮጵያ መንግሥት ይህንን አጋጣሚ በሚገባ ሊጠቀምበት ይገባል ሲሉም ያሳስባሉ፡፡

የኢትዮጵያ መንግሥት እያንዳንዱን እንቅስቃሴ በንቃት እንደሚከታተል የገለጹ ስማቸው እንዳይገለጽ የፈለጉ አንድ ባለሥልጣን፣ መንግሥት በችኮላ የሚሰጠው አስተያየት እንደሌለ ገልጸው፣ እንደወትሮው ሁሉ በዓባይ ዙሪያ ከማንኛውም ወገን ጋር ለመነጋገርና ለመደራደር ዝግጁ ነው ብለዋል፡፡ የህዳሴ ግድቡን በተመለከተም የኢትዮጵያ፣ የግብፅና የሱዳን ባለሙያዎች በጋራ እየሠሩ መሆኑን አስታውቀው፣ መንግሥት ኃላፊነት በተሞላበት ሁኔታ ችግሮች በሰላማዊ መንገድ መፍትሔ እንዲያገኙ ይሠራል ሲሉ አስታውቀዋል፡፡ የእስራኤልን የካርቱም የጦር መሣርያ ፋብሪካ ጥቃት በተመለከተም ከሚዲያ ከመስማታቸው ውጭ ዝርዝር መረጃ እንደሌላቸው ጠቁመው፣ በዚህ ጉዳይ ላይ ለጊዜው የመንግሥትን አቋም ለመግለጽ እንደሚቸገሩ ተናግረዋል፡፡ የዜጎችንና የፖለቲካ ተንታኞችን ሥጋት በተመለከተም እንዲህ ዓይነት ጉዳዮች ሁሌም ከበድ ስለሚሉ ነገሮችን ሚዛናዊ በሆነ መንገድ ማየት የግድ ነው ብለዋል፡፡ ባልተረጋገጡ ጉዳዮች ላይ መደምደሚያ ላይ መድረስ አስቸጋሪ መሆኑንም አስረድተዋል፡፡

ከዓባይ ወንዝ ጋር በተያያዘ በተለይም የታላቁ ህዳሴ ግድብ ፕሮጀክት ከተጀመረ ወዲህ ግድቡ ጥቃት እንዳይደርስበት፣ በአሻጥር ግንባታው እንዳይስተጓጎል ወይም መጓተት እንዳይፈጠርበት የሚሰጉ ዜጎች፣ የካርቱም ሚስጥራዊ የጦር መሣርያ ፋብሪካ በእስራኤል መመታቱን ከሰሙ ጀምሮ መንግሥት ብርቱ ጥንቃቄና ዝግጅት ማድረግ አለበት እያሉ ነው፡፡ ከዚህ ቀደም ኢትዮጵያ በውኃ ሀብቷ ላይ የምታካሂዳቸውን የተለያዩ ፕሮጀክቶች እንደምታደናቅፍ የምትጠረጠረው ግብፅ፣ ከሱዳን በተጨማሪ ኤርትራ ውስጥ ምን እያከናወነች እንደሆነ መንግሥት ሊከታተል ይገባዋል ይላሉ፡፡ የኢሳያስ አፈወርቂ መንግሥት ከኢትዮጵያ ጠላቶች ጋር በማበር ኢትዮጵያን ለማዳከም ወይም ለማጥፋት የማይፈነቅለው ድንጋይ የለም ሲሉ ያሳስባሉ፡፡ ኢትዮጵያ ሱዳን ድንበር አጠገብ ታላቁን የኃይል ማመንጫ ግድብ እየገነባች ሱዳን ውስጥ ሰው አልባ የጦር አውሮፕላኖችን፣ ሚሳይሎችንና ሮኬቶችን የሚያመርት ሚስጥራዊ የጦር መሣርያ ፋብሪካ መኖሩ በእጅጉ አሳሳቢ ነው ሲሉ ሥጋታቸውንም ይገልጻሉ፡፡
 ምንጭ  ሪፖርተር

Monday, October 29, 2012

Microsoft release window 8 operating System




Windows 8 contains more than 300 new features
Here are 9 key features  that Windows 8 brings to the table
1.    Windows 8 touch
The Windows 8 Start Menu is customizable through a mosaic of tiles, which differ from traditional desktop icons by letting you view live information from Windows 8 Metro style apps without actually accessing the apps.


2.    Windows 8 Start screen
3.    Better multiple monitor support
Windows 8 also brings increased support for multiple monitors, The Developers Preview of the new OS includes first-time capabilities for extending the taskbar across two PCs, without any need for third-party apps. You can also stretch wallpaper across two monitors, or display the Start screen on one PC and the desktop on the other, for instance
It is also designed to make it easy to run two apps in Windows 8 side-by-side, to resize them, and to switch between them. On the right-hand side of the screen, you can snap an app into place.
4.    Windows 8 charms
charms is a new implementation of the traditional Windows start bar. Charms can also be used to quickly configure settings for individual apps. On an ordinary non-touch PC, charms are accessed by dragging the mouse to the bottom-left corner of the screen, to the same spot as the old Windows start button. On a tablet, you swipe from the right side of the screen to bring up charms.
5.    WIndows 8 Search and Social
6.    Windows 8 ARM support
Until now, Windows has only supported x86-based Intel and AMD PCs but that is all changing with Windows 8, which will support devices running on ARM architecture
7.    Windows Store
8.    Windows 8 cloud integration
9.    Two Touch Keyboards
Windows 8 also contains two soft keyboards: an “enhanced” traditional keyboard, plus a new thumbs keyboard for non-touch typists.